Peer-Reviewed Research We Have Reviewed
References for Further Reading are Included Below the Summaries
Research on affects of AMA on offspring: (Quantitative studies)
- Research done by Myrskyla & Fenelon found that only children born to mothers under 25 and over 45 are associated with negative offspring health outcomes.
- “The results suggest that children born to young parents might have been better off if the parents had waited a few years”.
- “The public health concern regarding maternal age should focus on young, not old mothers”. 
Research on affects of AMA on mothers: ()
- One study found that “increased maternal age was significantly associated with several specific…adverse outcomes”.
- In Norway, a study of women 32 and older found that they had a slightly increased risk of psychological distress during pregnancy and motherhood compared with 25-31 year olds.
- A history of depression increased the risk in all women regardless of age. Age alone does not increase the risk for depression.
- Depressive triggers are: timing of childbirth, cesarean delivery, prematurity, and a baby needing neonatal care
- Because the age of first time mothers has changed, new groups of women are exposed to psychological distress.
Research on women’s experiences and views: (Qualitative studies)
- A study done in the UK found that women have many factors that combine to influence their choice to delay motherhood.
- The factors the participants experienced were:
- Being in a relationship, financial stability, physical health, and fertility.
- Without all of these factors being aligned, women perceive an element of risk to having a baby.
- In an American study in 2008, 79 couples were interviewed about how they negotiated any kind of social stigma they experienced being older parents
- “Both women and men experienced being older parents as important personal identities”.
- Fathers “almost exclusively discussed older fatherhood as a personal identity”.
- Mothers discussed all the ways age, gender and socioeconomic status intersected and became a public identity assigned by culture.
- Women often tried to normalize older motherhood as a way of managing interactions that were stigmatizing.
- They would openly discuss how older motherhood is becoming more common in society.
- Others would assert that they were not different, but “extraordinary” and saw their older motherhood as something exceptional.
- Women also expressed that they are better mothers now than they would have been if they gave birth in their 20’s.
- They describe themselves as stable, confident, experienced and more patient.
- The author noted that older mothers “by refusing to let the potential of stigma dictate their actions” enables social change and “stereotypes will be dismantled”.
Research on birth methods:
- One study found that there has been an increase of cesarean deliveries performed for women who have no medical need.
- Cesareans increase the risk for respiratory problems in infants, greater complications in subsequent pregnancies, and longer hospital stays.
- In a study that combined findings from 21 research papers, it was found that “perceptions of safety shaped women’s preferences” in birthplace choices.
- In cultures that medicalize childbirth, women believe giving birth is only safe in a hospital.
- Women reported that felt the hospital gave them physical safety, but not emotional safety.
- Women that used a midwife found that the medicalised culture made it difficult for them to “provide all the options available to women”.
- Women felt that without being informed of all of their choices, they had no autonomy and therefore could not make an informed decision.
- However, women who used a midwife reported that they felt more in control and more satisfied with their birth experience.
- Women that used a midwife reported an increased feeling of autonomy and “experienced greater personal attention”.
Research on fertility/infertility:
- The number of births per 1000 women 35-39 years of age has increased 36% between 1992 and 2002.
- The rate among women 40-44 has increased by 70%.
- The average age for women to cryopreserve their eggs is 38, as a reactive not a proactive measure.
- Women aged 30-35 are the ideal age to cryopreserve their eggs as a proactive measure to prevent future infertility.
- At the average age of 38, a woman’s declined and can produce a lower number of oocytes.
- Cryobanks and gynecologists should inform women about cryopreservation to expand their options.
- “This would expand a woman’s reproductive options and allows them to overcome the gap between optimal age to reproduce from a gynecological point of view and the optimal age to reproduce from a socioeconomic point of view”.
 Myrskylä, M., firstname.lastname@example.org, & Fenelon, A. (2012). Maternal Age and Offspring Adult Health: Evidence From the Health and Retirement Study. Demography, 49(4), 1231–1257. doi:10.1007/s13524-012-0132-x
 Salem Yaniv, S., Levy, A., Wiznitzer, A., Holcberg, G., Mazor, M., & Sheiner, E. (2011). A significant linear association exists between advanced maternal age and adverse perinatal outcome. Archives Of Gynecology And Obstetrics, 283(4), 755–759. doi:10.1007/s00404-010-1459-4
 Reddy, U. M., Ko, C.-W., & Willinger, M. (2006). Maternal age and the risk of stillbirth throughout pregnancy in the United States. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, 195(3), 764–770. doi:10.1016/j.ajog.2006.06.019
 Aasheim, V., Waldenström, U., Hjelmstedt, A., Rasmussen, S., Pettersson, H., & Schytt, E. (2012). Associations between advanced maternal age and psychological distress in primiparous women, from early pregnancy to 18 months postpartum. BJOG: An International Journal Of Obstetrics And Gynaecology, 119(9), 1108–1116. doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.2012.03411.x
 Meyer, C. S. (1999). Family focus or career focus: controlling for infertility. Social Science & Medicine, 49(12), 1615–1622. doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00210-5
 Cooke, A., Mills, T. A., & Lavender, T. (2010). “Informed and uninformed decision making”—Women’s reasoning, experiences and perceptions with regard to advanced maternal age and delayed childbearing: A meta-synthesis. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47(10), 1317–1329. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2010.06.001
 Cooke, Alison, Tracey A. Mills, & Tina Lavender. (n.d.). Advanced maternal age: Delayed childbearing is rarely a conscious choice. A qualitative study of women’s views and experiences. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 49, 30–39. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2011.07.013
 Friese, C., Becker, G., & Nachtigall, R. D. (2008). Older motherhood and the changing life course in the era of assisted reproductive technologies. Journal of Aging Studies, 22(1), 65–73. doi:10.1016/j.jaging.2007.05.009
 Campbell, P. (2011). Boundaries and risk: Media framing of assisted reproductive technologies and older mothers. Social Science & Medicine, 72(2), 265–272. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2010.10.028
 MacDorman, M. F., Menacker, F., & Declercq, E. (2008). Cesarean birth in the United States: epidemiology, trends, and outcomes. Clinics in Perinatology, 35(2), 293–307, v. doi:10.1016/j.clp.2008.03.007
 Hadjigeorgiou, E., Kouta, C., Papastavrou, E., Papadopoulos, I., & Mårtensson, L. B. (2012). Women’s perceptions of their right to choose the place of childbirth: an integrative review. Midwifery, 28(3), 380–390. doi:10.1016/j.midw.2011.05.006
 Lester, S. (1999). An introduction to phenomenological research. Stan Lester Developments. Retrieved from http://www.sld.demon.co.uk/resmethy
 Smajdor, A. (2011). The ethics of IVF over 40. Maturitas, 69(1), 37–40. doi:10.1016/j.maturitas.2011.02.012
 Mertes, H., & Pennings, G. (2011). Social egg freezing: for better, not for worse. Reproductive Biomedicine Online, 23(7), 824–829. doi:10.1016/j.rbmo.2011.09.010